Jānis welcomes Alexander Lanoszka for a discussion of his new book, Military Alliances in the Twenty-First Century. Lanoszka discusses the book’s main conclusions arguing that all alliances have some degree of internal dificulties and are prone to dysfunction. The conversation moves on to Finland and Sweden joining NATO, including Turkey blocking the latter’s accession. He discusses Ukraine becoming a NATO member and the implications for European security, including the Baltic regions. The conversation ends with a discussion about the possibility of the “Global South” forming alliances to counter Western influence and the relationship between China and Russia.